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Orphaned Raccoons Part 2

Raccoon Diseases
by The Gable's Raccoon Rehab, edited by Birgit Sommer

Raccoon Distemper

Next to humans, the second leading cause of death of raccoons is distemper. Raccoons are susceptible to infection by both canine and feline distemper. Although they both can cause acute illness and death, they are caused by two completely different viruses. Canine Distemper is a a highly contagious disease of carnivores caused by a virus that affects animals in the families Canidae, Mustelidae and Procyonidae.

Canine distemper is common when raccoon populations are large. The virus is widespread and mortality in juveniles is higher than in adults. Feline distemper, also called feline panleukopenia, catplague, cat fever, feline agranulocytosis, and feline infectious enteritis, is an acute, highly infectious viral disease affecting members of the Felidae, Mustelidae and Procyonidae.

Signs and Symptoms
Canine distemper in raccoons starts slowly, initially appearing as an upper respiratory infection, with a runny nose and watery eyes developing into conjunctivitis (the most visible symptoms). As time wears on, the raccoon can develop pneumonia. The raccoon may be thin and debilitated and diarrhea is a clear symptom.

In the final stage of the disease, the raccoon may begin to wander aimlessly in a circle, disoriented and unaware of its surroundings, suffer paralysis or exhibit other bizarre behaviour as a result of brain damage. Many of these symptoms are indistinguishable from, and therefore often mistaken for, the signs of rabies which can only be determined by laboratory testing.

Raccoon distemper is cyclical and can spread and wipe out entire colonies of raccoons. The disease is transmitted through airborne droplets, direct contact with body fluids, saliva or raccoon droppings. Feline distemper usually begins suddenly with a high fever, followed by depression, vomiting, anorexia, diarrhea, and a profound leukopenia.


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The course of the disease is short, rarely lasting over one week, but mortality may reach 100% in susceptible animals. Feline distemper virus is shed in all body secretions and excretions of affected animals. Fleas and other insects, especially flies, may play a role in transmission of the disease.

Treatment
No treatment exists for canine or feline distemper (thereby increasing the need for prevention and control). Infected raccoons are usually euthanized. Control of distemper outbreaks includes the removal of dead animals' carcasses, vaccination of at-risk domestic species to decrease the number of susceptible hosts, and a reduction in wildlife populations which
also reduces the number of potential hosts. The canine distemper virus is inactivated by heat, formalin,and Roccal R. Disinfection of premises with a dilution of 1.30 bleach will help to reduce spread.

Prevention
Unvaccinated dogs and cats that are allowed to wander unattended are at risk of infection from, as well as posing a risk of infection to, raccoons and other wildlife. Humans are not at risk from distemper as the disease cannot be passed on to people and presents no danger to humans. Dog and cat owners should make sure their pets have been vaccinated for the disease.

Owners of pet ferrets should have their animals vaccinated against canine distemper which is fatal in ferrets. Wildlife rehabbers should quarantine any new rehabs until they get a clean bill of health and should have the animals vaccinated against both canine and feline distemper.

References/Resources:
Gables Raccoon Rescue
Canine and Feline Distemper in Wildlife: Michigan DNR Rose Lake Lab
FAQs about Pet Vaccines: Mar Vista Animal Medical Center
Wildlife Vaccines: Wildcare Publications

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Raccoon Roundworm

Raccoons are the normal host for the parasitic nematode or roundworm known as Baylisascaris procyonis. It is the common large roundworm found in the small intestines of raccoons. Cotton rats are believed to be a possible intermediate host.

Adult raccoons are susceptible only to larvae from rodent tissue while young raccoons are susceptible to infection by egg ingestion where larva hatches in small intestine with migration apparently limited to wall of small intestine. This roundworm is zoonotic, meaning it can pass from animal to animal (or human). In the raccoon, these worms normally produce no symptoms in the infected host raccoon, other than possibly intestinal obstruction, and apparently do little or no harm to adult raccoons.

In the Midwest, prevalence is 70% for adult and 99% for baby raccoons according to the University of Missouri College of Veterinary Medicine. Adult worms measure 15 to 20 cm in length and 1 cm in width, tan-white in color, cylindrical and tapered at both ends. The eggs are ovoid, brown, with finely pitted outer shell, measure 70 x 55 microns and are passed in one-cell stage. The eggs embryonate into larva outside of host.

Transmission
The disease is spread through the eggs contained in the feces of an infected raccoon, by ingesting either raccoon feces or things that have been in contact with raccoon feces. Adult female roundworms produce thousands to millions of eggs per day. After the eggs are shed in feces, they embryonate into a larval stage in about 3-4 weeks. They remain viable in the environment for months to over 5-6 years. When ingested, the larva migrate and reach lengths of 1.5 to 2.0 mm.

Signs and Symptoms
Clinical and pathological symptoms occur when an abnormal host (an animal other than the raccoon) becomes infected. It can cause a very rare disease called visceral larva migrans (VLM) in humans and other animals, as well as ocular larva migrans (OLM) and neural larva migrans (NLM). If ingested by an abnormal host, the eggs penetrate the small intestine (which they apparently do not do in raccoons) and undergo an aberrant migration through the body. The eggs hatch, and the larvae migrate to the brain, eyes and other organs. The parasite has been implicated in cases of serious eye disease or central nervous system disorders and infection can cause death or paralysis depending on the location in the body and number of worms.

Human toxocarosis via pets vs. Baylisascaris
It should be noted that visceral larva migrans and ocular larva migrans in humans (and other animals) can also be caused by feces of other animals - most notably pet dogs and cats. Human infection with the toxiocaris larvae of canine or feline roundworms is known collectively as toxocariasis. All cases of toxocariasis come from pets, according to the Texas Dept. of Health, Div. of Zoonosis Control, which states an estimated 10,000 new cases of roundworm infection occur in children every year, most often as a result of eating dirt contaminated with animal feces.

Most human infections are mild enough to go unnoticed and apparently produce no permanent damage. However sometimes infection results in severe and even fatal disease. Common symptoms include abdominal pain, headache, weakness, lethargy and wheezing. Due to the public health significance, it is important to distinguish Baylisascaris from Toxocara.

Not to minimize the risk, but in many states raccoons are being systematically euthanized because of the panic over perceived danger of transmission of the raccoon roundworm to humans as a result of two documented cases (one a fatality) to date, including a case in 1998 where a child in Pacific Grove, California was infected by eating bark on firewood that had been contaminated by raccoon feces. Over 177 local wild raccoons were systematically executed before a lawsuit by the City's concerned citizens brought the killings to a halt. Eradication of raccoons will not prevent the very rare disease visceral larva migrans in humans. However, education and some common sense might.

Preventation
Contact with wild raccoons or exposure to their feces should be avoided. Hunters, trappers, and wildlife rehabilitators should wash their hands after handling raccoons. Wild raccoons should be discouraged from inhabiting buildings or other areas used by humans. Prevention also consists of never touching or inhaling raccoon feces, using rubber gloves and a mask when cleaning cages (or attics, etc.) which have been occupied by raccoons, burying or burning all feces, keeping children and pets away from raccoon cages and enclosures, and disinfecting cages and enclosures between litters.

All cages and nest boxes used for housing raccoons should not be used for any other animals. They should remain strictly for raccoon use. Do frequent fecal screens on all raccoons in your possession. If positive, your wildlife vet may recommend de-worming your raccoon via treatment with an anthelmintic such as Panacur (brand of Fenbendazole) at .1 cc per pound of body weight each week until release or other accepted treatment. Remember that raccoons may have fecal matter on their paws and bodies and take appropriate safeguards.

Treatment
While there is no known treatment for VLM or NLM, there are several drugs that can treat the parasite in raccoons. They include piperazine, pyrantel pamoate, or fenbendazole. Following is an abstract from a study testing the efficacy of six anthelmintics against luminal stages of Baylisascaris procyonis in naturally infected raccoons (Procyon lotor)
[JOURNAL. Bauer, C; Gey, A. Veterinary Parasitology, v.60, n.1-2, 1995:155-159] "Abstract: The efficacy of six anthelmintics against natural infections of Baylisascaris procyonis in raccoons (n = 7 per drug) was determined in a series of critical tests.

The drugs were given via moist cat food as a single dose or once daily for three consecutive days. Raccoons treated with pyrantel embonate (1 times 20 mg base kg-1 bodyweight (bwt.)), ivermectin (1 times 1 mg kg-1 bwt.), moxidectin (1 times 1 mg kg-1 bwt.), albendazole (3 times 50 mg kg-1 bwt.), fenbendazole (3 times 50 mg kg-1 bwt.) or flubendazole (3 times 22 mg kg-1 bwt.) expelled 1- 198, 2-24, 2-14, 3-80, 2-70, or 2-35 B. procyonis stages, respectively, within the faeces. No roundworm was detected in any raccoon at post mortem examinations 7 days after the end of treatment. These results suggest that any of the six anthelmintics can be used at the dose rates tested in a deworming programme for captive raccoons."

Conclusion and Opinion
When it comes to Baylisascaris procyonis, prevention and common sense should be used. Attempts to eradicate raccoon populations will not eradicate the problem and, particularly if the cotton rat is an intermediate host, may only compound it by removing a natural predator of the cotton rat. Further, it may upset the balance of nature, causing an unnatural increase in the skunk population, a reservoir of the non-raccoon strain of rabies, by removing a natural predator of baby skunks. All animals (human, domestic and wild) harbor parasites that can be transmitted to each other. Instead of panicking over a real but very rare danger, learn h ow to minimze the risks of transmission. And don't eat any poop.

References/Further Resources:
Baylisascaris vs. Toxocara - University of Missouri College of VeterinaryMedicine toxocariasis - Texas Dept. of Health, Div. of Zoonosis Control
Baylisascaris procyonis - Michigan DNR Wildlife Division
Baylisascaris procyonis - University of Missouri College of Veterinary Medicine
Enlightened response - Pacific Grove School District
Anthelmintic Drugs - University of Missouri College of Veterinary

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Raccoon Rabies

When it comes to rabies, ignorance can kill. Not just you or your pets, but innocent and healthy wildlife. Raccoons are the number one wild animal killed for rabies testing. Dogs and cats top the list of domestic animals killed for rabies testing. In both these and other animals, the vast majority are found NOT to have rabies.

They must pay with their lives because people have possibly been exposed to rabies by them. If these same people had taken precautions against possible exposure to rabies, these animals would still be alive. Don't be responsible for the death of an innocent animal. Learn about rabies and learn how to protect yourself, your family, your pets and our wildlife.

Raccoon rabies is a strain of rabies carried mainly by raccoons. Raccoon rabies is rabies. It can be spread to farm animals, pets and people through the saliva of an infected animal in the same ways as other strains of rabies. Raccoon rabies kills raccoons, other animals and humans in the same way as other strains of rabies do. The only difference is that it is spread primarily by raccoons.

Please read more about Rabies in our special section on the subject HERE!

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Raccoons as Pets

One of the most frequently asked questions I run into is "Where can I get a baby raccoon for a pet?"My response: Besides it being illegal in most US States to possess a raccoon, they are not pets in the way that cats and dogs are, no matter how many generations have been bred in captivity. At best, they can be considered a companion friend. At worst, a liability insurance nightmare!

They live by one set of rules - theirs. And they change the rules whenever it suits them. They will melt your heart with their loving face. And shed your blood with their razor sharp teeth and claws. If you keep a raccoon caged, all you will have is a caged wild animal, not a pet. If you let it have the run of your house, then it will be the raccoon keeping you as a pet as it does what it pleases to the house and you.

And an adult raccoon is quite capable of causing a great amount of damage, to both you and your possessions, in a very short amount of time! I believe wild animals belong in the wild when at all possible.And consider this: there is no approved rabies vaccine for raccoons. If your beloved pet raccoon bites or scratches anyone, your local health department will require you to submit your raccoon for rabies testing, regardless of the fact that you may have raised him from a newborn.

This is a death sentence for the raccoon, as they will cut off its head and send its brain to a lab. It may not even be legal for you to have a raccoon in your state and end up with a hefty lawsuit on top of everything. Last but least..are you really this selfish to deprive a wild animal of it's birthright to live free just because you want one?

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Raccoons as Nuisance

Raccoons often push open soffit to get into the attics of homes. While in the attic they urinate and defecate all over the attic insulation. Also, they also will rip pool and patio screens to get to water or pet food.

Raccoons are very cute but they can very destructive if they loose their natural fear of humans. Feeding raccoons by hand is not safe, and can result in a bite. I have worked incidents involving raccoon bites where the raccoon has run off after the bite incident. Bites from raccoons have happened to people who were simply watching the raccoon eat from the outside cat bowl.

Raccoons with babies are generally nervous and may attack perceiving they have to protect their babies. If a bite is reported where a raccoon has run away after the bite, the health department will order many raccoons destroyed in the surrounding area. If one decides not to report a bite then that person takes the great risk of contracting rabies because raccoons are considered rabies vectoring animals.

Source: Fred Bohler at wildlife-education.com

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HELP! I have raccoons in my attic (or porch). How can I get rid of them?

Just chasing the animal out somehow and then sealing off the entry point will, almost always, not work because the raccoon will return and force its way back in again. At this point, it will cause more damage than it did before.. You need to convince the raccoon that this is not a place it wants to be.

And if you can do that without calling in a pest removal service or trapper, not only will you save money, but you will save the raccoon's life. First, are there babies in the attic?

If you hear mouse-like squeals, chances are they're coming from baby raccoons. March through June is usually baby time, unless you live in Florida like me, then it can be year round. If you know that there are young in the attic, wait as long as possible before you attempt eviction.

Not only will relocation of the nest be easier on the older cubs but mother coons generally move the babies on their own when they are about 8 weeks of age. Raccoons dislike bright lights, loud noises and strong odors.

  • Place bright lights in the attic. Additionally, place motion activated devices or bring flashing lights if you have them.
  • Place a radio in the attic. Tune it to a loud rock or talk station, with the volume set as high as you can stand it. Leave it playing all day long, to disrupt the raccoon's sleep.
  • Place rags soaked with dog urine or Ropel (predator urine available at hunting supply stores) in the attic. Bags of naphtha flakes or moth balls may also be placed around the attic but NOT near the nesting area. Ammonia or ammonia-soaked cotton rags should NOT be used. If there are baby raccoons in the chimney, concentrated ammonia vapors or other caustic mixtures can damage the infant raccoons' mucous membranes.

They can also cause an adult raccoon to become extremely agitated while attempting to flee from the vapors and it may provoke an attack. It is advisable that ammonia ONLY be used in open spaces, such as in a yard or around garbage pails, where a raccoon can easily flee from the vapors.

  • To heighten your success (particularly if you live in a very cold area), before evicting the raccoon, you might want to make provisions for an enticing den for the raccoon away from your house (this can be anything from a woodpile to a wooden box with a small opening, perhaps lined with blankets). You may want to make a trail of dry dog kibble leading to
    the den.
  • Keep pets inside, especially at night, while eviction proceedings are under way. Mama raccoon might not move her babies if your pets are outside. Make sure your pets are up to date on their shots. * Some say you can scare them out just by making your presence known: going into the attic a few times a day with a flashlight, shining the light on them, and talking to them. I suggest the indirect approach to avoid a confrontation.

Do not attempt to capture it yourself. Because of the danger of rabies and other diseases and just plain agitated wildlife, avoid any confrontation with the raccoon itself. A mama raccoon might misinterprete your intentions as a threat and attack in defense of her babies. The threat of rabies, even in a perfectly healthly looking animal, will mandate its death for rabies testing if you are even possibly exposed.

If these methods fail, contact a wildlife rehabber in your area and ask for help in having the raccoon trapped (using hav-a-heart traps). You can find a list of animal rehabbers, grouped by state, at the WRID website, or perhaps in your phone book or through a local vet.

Unless it is one recommended by a rehabber, call animal control or pest removal services as a last resort. Very few relocate raccoons and while some may have a rehabber they bring wildlife to, most have no alternative except to euthanize the raccoon. Relocating raccoons is not really the answer anyway. It is far better and easier to use one of the above methods to encourage the raccoons to relocate themselves.

Raccoon Eviction Fluid ??? This stuff is touted as being designed for use on female raccoon and their young. While the testimonial for this product for sale on this professional nuisance wildlife operators website is fascinating reading, the raccoon eviction fluid sounds almost too good to be true. Who knows. Might be worth a try. Hit the road Jack, and don't come back no more, no more.

When you think the raccoons have left, you can sprinkle Cayenne pepper around the entrance area, if that is possible or try a repellent, such as Ropel or predator urine, sprayed around the entrance area or use 2 Tbs. of Tabasco sauce to 1 qt. of water, sprayed or painted around the entrance area. Before sealing the entry, tack a sheet of plastic over the entry and check to see if animals have broken through. (If they have, the plastic sheet is cheaper than repairing the damage). Be sure to leave the light and radio on until there is no sign of activity, and then permanently seal the entry. Just sealing the entry does not work if the raccoons still WANT to get back in - make it so they don't!

When you are sure the raccoons have left, securely close up their entry/exit point so they can't get back in.

Prune back any tree branches that might have helped them gain access to the roof and attic.

If the raccoon was using the attic for a while, it may have been urinating and defecating on the roof or in the attic. For cleaning the feces, contact a reliable professional or wear rubber gloves and a mask and clean up such waste promptly, burying or burning the feces. Raccoon feces can harbor organisms (such as the parasitic raccoon roundworm known as Baylisascaris procyonis) and if left exposed pose a hazard to humans and wildlife. One woman wrote that she had so many raccoons living in her attic over the years, she had to have her insulation replaced because of the amount of feces contamination.

Source: Gables Raccoon Rehab

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HELP! I have raccoons in my chimney. How can I get rid of them?

First, are there babies in the chimney?

  • If you hear mouse-like squeals from above your fireplace damper, chances are they're coming from baby raccoons. March through June is usually baby time, unless you live in Florida like me, then it can be year round. If you know that there are young in the chimney, wait as long as possible before you attempt eviction. Not only will relocation of the nest be easier on the older cubs but mother coons generally move the babies on their own when they are about 8 weeks of age. So if at all possible, just wait. Raccoons dislike bright lights, loud noises and strong odors.
  • Place a radio in the fireplace. Tune it to a loud rock or talk station, with the volume set as high as you can take. Leave it playing all day long, to disrupt the raccoon's sleep.
  • If the flue is partially open, some suggest placing a bright light in the fireplace shining up into the chimney. Others suggest closing the damper securely (to prevent the raccoons from falling through) and hanging a mechanic's trouble light down the chimney. * Do NOT start a fire in the fireplace to smoke them out. This can be dangerous to you and fatal to the raccoons.
  • Place rags soaked with dog urine (or predator urine available at hunting supply stores) in the fireplace or lower them into the chimney. DO NOT pour ammonia down the chimney or use ammonia-soaked cotton rags and/or bags of naphtha flakes or moth balls! If there are baby raccoons in the chimney, concentrated ammonia vapors or other caustic mixtures can damage the infant raccoons' mucous membranes. They can also cause an adult raccoon to become extremely agitated while attempting to flee from the vapors and it may provoke an attack. Ammonia should ONLY be used in open spaces, such as a yard.
  • I have had people tell me that they have placed rope or poles going down into the chimney which successfully aided the animals in leaving. This is recommended in cases where your "guests" are other than raccoons or if it is a smooth metal chimney. When you are dealing with baby raccoons, there is the possibility that the rope or pole could lead to problems.
  • Because of the danger of rabies and other diseases and just plain agitated wildlife, avoid any confrontation with the raccoon itself. A mama raccoon might misinterprete your intentions as a threat and attack in defense of her babies. If a raccoon stratches or bites you, it will have to
    be killed and tested for rabies.
  • To heighten your success, before evicting the raccoon, you might want to make provisions for an enticing den for the raccoon away from your house (this can be anything from a woodpile to a wooden box with a small opening, perhaps lined with blankets). You may want to make a trail of dry dog kibble leading to the den.
  • Keep pets inside while eviction proceedings are under way. Mama raccoon might not move her babies if your pets are outside.
  • Unless it is one recommended by a rehabber, call animal control or pest removal services as a last resort. Very few relocate raccoons and while some may have a rehabber they bring wildlife to, most have no alternative except to euthanize the raccoons. Relocating raccoons is not really the answer anyway. It is far better and easier to use one of the above methods to encourage the raccoons to relocate themselves.
  • You can find a list of animal rehabbers, grouped by state, at the WRID website, or perhaps in your phone book or through a local vet.
  • Raccoon Eviction Fluid ??? This stuff is touted as being designed for use on female taccoon and their young. While the testimonial for this product for sale on this professional nuisance wildlife operators website is fascinating reading, the raccoon eviction fluid sounds almost too good to be true. Who knows. Might be worth a try. Hit the road Jack, and don't come back no more, no more.
  • Once you are absolutely certain that the raccoons have moved, call a chimneysweep to remove debris and have the chimney professionally capped or screened to prevent raccoons or other wildlife from nesting there again. Raccoons can quickly get through amateur cappings and a mother raccoon will literally tear apart your roof if you cap one of her babies inside your chimney.
  • If the raccoon was using the chimney for a while, it may have been urinating and defecating on the roof or gutter. Wear rubber gloves and a mask and clean up such waste promptly, burying or burning the feces. Raccoon feces can harbor organisms (such as the parasitic raccoon roundworm known as Baylisascaris procyonis) and if left exposed pose a
    hazard to humans and wildlife.
Source: Gables Raccoon Rehab

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HELP! I have raccoons in my garbage. How can I get rid of them?

  • Always cover composters and garbage cans.
  • Keep dumpsters securely closed.
  • Use bungie cords or very heavy weights to keep the garbage can lids in place.
  • Build a secure enclosure for your garbage pails or composter.
  • Sprinkle naphtha flakes or predator urine around the area or hang ammonia-soaked cotton rags near the garbage cans, dumpster or composter. Raccoons dislike strong odors.
  • Place bright lights in the area. Additionally, place motion activated devices or flashing lights if you have them. Raccoons dislike bright lights.
  • Remember you are dealing with a critter who can practically scale sheer walls, take things apart in the blink of an eye, and open anything short of a padlocked door (give him the key or combination, and he will open most locks also).
  • Unless it is one recommended by a rehabber, call animal control or pest removal services as a last resort. Very few relocate raccoons and while some may have a rehabber they bring wildlife to, most have no alternative except to euthanize the raccoon. Relocating raccoons is not really the answer anyway. It is far better and easier to use one of the above methods to encourage the raccoons to relocate themselves.
  • Remember too that you are dealing with a creature that is increasingly being displaced by humans and finding his environment, and natural food sources, shrinking daily. To shoot a raccoon simply for getting into your garbage is cruel. Please be humane.

Source: Gables Raccoon Rehab

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How do I raccoon-proof my home or garbage?

Raccoon-proof your home.

Cover up potential entrances, such as uncapped chimneys, loose shingles and openings in attics, roofs and eaves. If you're not sure where raccoons are getting in, sprinkle flour
around potential entrances and check for footprints later. You can also stuff a rag or ball of paper in a suspect hole and check later to see if it has been removed. Make a raccoon den unlivable. Sprinkle naphtha flakes or predator urine around the area or hang ammonia-soaked cotton rags near the entrance and keep the area brightly lit.

Raccoons dislike loud noises, bright lights and strong smells. Use the same methods in your garden or in the area where you keep your garbage or composter. Always cover composters and garbage cans. Use a bungie cord or a heavy weight to keep the lid in place. Make sure that all raccoons or other animals have left before sealing up holes in any part of a building.

This is especially important during the season when there may be young (usually March through June, depending on the locale). Block the entrances to a raccoon den once you're sure all the animals have left. You can use sheet metal. Repair siding and holes in buildings, and use heavy rustproof screening to cover open air vents or chimneys. Trim all overhanging tree branches or any other structure that animals might use to get on to the roof of a residence or detached building.

Source: Gables Raccoon Rehab

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